Macro lens is the lens that allow us to transfer the object we want to photograph to the sensor of our camera in (1: 1) or higher size. Macro lenses project an object of 1cm size to our photo, again 1cm or larger (such as 2x, 3x). Since the sensor size is 36x24mm in full-frame cameras, we can transfer an object of size 36 × 24 mm to our photo in real life, we can transfer an object of 25x16mm size to our photo since the sensor size is 25 × 16 mm in cropped cameras. If the object we take here is 4352 pixels on the sensor, this object is 4352 pixels in real life.
So let’s give an example, let’s say we took a house photo and the photo we took is 4352 pixels on the sensor, but is it possible that this house is 4352 pixels in real life? Of course no. Well, we took a fly photo, it is possible that the size of the pixel on the sensor in 1cm size is the same as the real life size. So the house photo? This is not the case. Here is the macro lens that makes the macro macro, transfering the objects one-to-one or 2x 3x 5x 10x size photo.
Note the following here; writing a macro on a lens or the macro setting on the dial you see on compact machines does not make that camera or that lens a macro lens.The images you take from these are not considered as macro photographs. Whether the lens provides a 1: 1 and one-to-one size image is the issue. Therefore, not every lens that writes a macro is a macro lens.
However, on a subject you should keep in mind, macro lenses have a fixed focal length, such as 90mm, 105mm. This is because lenses with fixed focal lengths, called prime, are optimized for the sharpest photos. Zoom lenses, that is, photo quality and sharpness obtained with lenses such as 18-55, 70-200 are lower than prime lenses. The reason for this is the fact that the lenses moving inside the zoom lenses are moving causes loss of quality. In prime lenses with fixed focal length, the lenses are fixed and optimized for optimal image quality.
The distance at which your lens can focus the subject is called the focus distance. One of the important features of macro lenses is that normal lenses provide 30-40 cm zoom to an object, while macro lenses provide zoom up to 1cm. You can try it yourself. If you are a DSLR owner, when you try to shoot an object very closely, you will see that your lens does not focus, but when you put a certain distance between you and the subject, it focuses. This distance is too short for macro lenses. In summary, the focusing distance of macro lenses is ideal for macro photography.
Focusing distance decreases creates two negative situations. The first of these is low light and the second is that the depth of field is very low. The most difficult for macro photographers is having to work in low light conditions and low depth of field.
Please note that with every macro lens, you can take photos like portrait etc. but you cannot take macro photos with every lens. (Except for reverse binding, etc.) In order to take macro photos, you should use lenses that can be shot in 1: 1 size, which are specially produced for macro photography.
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May your light be bright. Stay healthy.